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Diabetic Retinopathy

What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Retina scan of diabetic retinopathy

People with diabetes can develop an eye condition called diabetic retinopathy. This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels can swell and leak, or they can close, stopping blood from passing through. All of these changes can result in vision loss.

Diabetic retinopathy typically develops without early warning signs. The damage to the eye can occur slowly and is hard to detect without regular and accurate monitoring.

What are the Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy?

Since diabetic retinopathy rarely has symptoms in its early stages, it is possible to have diabetic retinopathy and not even know it. As the condition worsens, you may experience:

Symptoms typically affect both eyes. Because of a lack of early symptoms, it is important that if you have diabetes, you have an annual comprehensive eye exam. Your sight depends on it! The longer diabetic retinopathy goes undiagnosed, the higher the chances become that you will experience permanent vision impairment.

What are the Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy?

Medical diagram of the stages of Diabetic Retinopathy

There are two main stages of diabetic eye disease:

Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR)

This is the early stage of diabetic eye disease, and many people with diabetes have it. With NPDR, the weakened blood vessels can begin to leak fluid and blood. When the macula swells, it is called macular edema. This is the most common reason why people with diabetes lose their vision. Also with NPDR, blood vessels in the retina can close off, keeping blood from reaching the macula. This is referred to as macular ischemia, and can cause significant vision loss.

Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR)

PDR is the more advanced stage of diabetic eye disease. In PDR, the lack of blood flow due to the number of damaged blood vessels is great enough to cause the eye to grow new blood vessels to try and help itself, a process called neovascularization. Unfortunately, these new blood vessels do not help. These fragile vessels can easily burst with minor trauma like a forceful sneeze or cough, causing the eye to fill with blood. These abnormal vessels also result in scar tissue formation that may cause the retina to detach from the back of the eye. PDR is very serious, as it can steal both your central and peripheral vision.

How is Diabetic Retinopathy Treated?

Treatment depends on the extent of the disease and can include:

Medical Management

Certain medications (injections) may help to relieve inflammation or reduce swelling of the macula, thereby slowing vision loss and perhaps improving vision.

Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Anti-VEGF)

This treatment is an injection that can help with two problems. It can reduce the number of abnormal blood vessels in the retina and can also decrease fluid. We may recommend anti-VEGF treatment in both cases of NPDR and PDR.

Focal or Grid Laser

In certain instances, laser surgery is used to seal a blood vessel that is leaking or to stimulate the cells under the retina to absorb the leaked fluid. In some cases, more than one treatment is needed.

Panretinal Photocoagulation (PRP) Laser

In the case of the more serious PDR where abnormal blood vessels have developed, we may recommend a laser procedure called panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). By using a laser to make tiny burns in the peripheral retina, we reduce the signals for the growth of the abnormal blood vessels and cause these vessels to shrink. In some cases, more than one treatment is needed.


For more severe cases of diabetic retinopathy when the eye is filled with blood or if a retinal detachment is present, vitrectomy surgery is used. Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure that removes vitreous gel, blood and scar tissue in the back of the eye. It is also used to repair retinal detachments that result from scar tissue and abnormal blood vessel growth in advanced diabetic eye disease. By removing the vitreous hemorrhage and reattaching the retina, light rays are again able to focus correctly on the retina.

If you are concerned about any diabetes-related eye problems, our experienced retina specialist, Dr. Mohsenin, will be happy to discuss potential solutions and develop an individual treatment plan for you.


The Mann Eye Institute is a leading eye care facility with seventeen locations in Humble, West Humble, Houston, Central Austin, North Austin, Sugar Land, Katy, Spring, The Woodlands Market Street, Livingston, Bay City, Pearland, Baytown, Tomball and Cleveland, Texas. With various locations in the Houston and Austin areas we can provide the full continuum of care, including; designer eyewear and eye care needs, LASIK eye surgery, cataract surgery, premium lens implants and dry eye treatment options. If you are seeking expert eye doctors in Texas contact us today!

Copperfield Office
6860 Highway 6 North, Ste. A
Houston, TX 77084
(281) 500-9605

Houston Fannin Office
5115 Fannin St., 10th Floor, Ste 1000
Houston, TX 77004
(713) 580-2500

The Woodlands Office
1501 Lake Robbins Dr. Ste. 130
The Woodlands, TX 77380
(281) 367-2010

Pearland Office
10223 Broadway St., Ste. J
Pearland, TX 77584
(281) 971-9332

Spring Office
2616 FM 2920 Ste. I
Spring, TX 77388
(281) 353-8300

Tomball Office
14079 FM 2920
Tomball, TX 77377
(346) 701-4029

Katy Office
750 Westgreen Blvd.
Katy, TX 77450
(281) 392-3937

Humble - Deerbrook Office
9802 FM 1960 W, Ste. 110
Humble, Texas 77338
(281) 446-9333

Sugar Land Office
6424 E. Riverpark Dr.
Sugar Land, TX 77479
(713) 580-2525

Humble - S. Memorial Office
18850 S. Memorial Blvd.
Humble, TX 77338
(281) 446-7900

Livingston Office
1601 US-59 Loop North, Ste. 100
Livingston, Texas 77351
(936) 327-3937

Cleveland Office
429 West Southline
Cleveland, TX 77327
(281) 592-4343

Bay City Office
3612 Avenue F
Bay City, TX 77414
(979) 244-1450

Baytown Office
4750 East Freeway
Baytown, TX 77521
(281) 421-2020

South Austin Office
2600 Via Fortuna, Ste. 400
Austin, TX 78746
(512) 327-4123

North Austin Office
4314 W. Braker Lane Ste. 215
Austin, TX 78759
(512) 200-3937

Sun City Office
1530 Sun City Blvd., Ste. 150
Georgetown, TX 78633
(512) 327-3792

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